Type specimen in International Code of Botanical Nomenclature


Holotype:A holotype of a name of a species or infraspecific taxon is the one specimen or illustration used by the author, or designated by the author as the nomenclatural type.
Isotype:A duplicate specimen of the holotype.
Syntype:Any of two or more specimens listed in the species type description when a holotype was not designated.
Paratype:A paratype is a specimen cited in the protologue that is neither the holotype nor an isotype, nor one of the syntypes if two or more specimens were simultaneously designated as types.
Lectotype:A specimen later selected, usually from among the isotype, syntype(s), or paratype(s), to serve as if it were a holotype where a holotype was either never designated or was lost or destroyed.
Neotype:A specimen later selected to serve as if it were a holotype when all specimens available and listed by the original species author have been lost or destroyed, or where the original author never cited a specimen.
Epitype:A specimen or illustration selected to serve as an interpretative type when the holotype, lectotype, or previously designated neotype, or all original material associated with a validly published name, is demonstrably ambiguous and cannot be critically identified for purposes of the precise application of the name of a taxon.
Cotype:A term not used in the present ICBN. It was formerly used for either isotype, syntype, or paratype.